White to almost white powder
10% in water: Soluble
1% in 96% ethanol: Slightly soluble
pH (10% in water)
3.0 - 3.4
Specific Optical Rotation
+21.0 - +23.0 ° (1% in water)
Related Substances (HPLC)
Any Specified Impurity: ≤ 0.3%
(Continine, Myosmine, Nicotine-N-oxide, beta-Nicotyrine, Anatabine, Anabasine, Nornicotine)
Unspecified Impurity: ≤ 0.1%
98.5 - 101.5 % (anhydrous basis)
Ethanol: ≤ 5000ppm, Methanol: ≤ 3000ppm
H300: Fatal if swallowed.
H310: Fatal in contact with skin.
H330: Fatal if inhaled.
H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.
P260: Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P273: Avoid release to the environment.
P280: Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284: Wear respiratory protection.
P301 + P310: IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P302 + P352: IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water.
P304 + P340: IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P310: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
UN1659 - 6.1 - PG II
If you are publishing research using GL9693 please contact us
to contribute to our list of citations.
Atomoxetine Reestablishes Long Term Potentiation in a Mouse Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Ricardo Pina, Carlos Rozas, Darwin Contreras, Paulina Hardy, Gonzalo Ugarte, Marc L. Zeise, Patricio Rojas, Bernardo Morales
Neuroscience, 268-274, 439 (2020)
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric childhood disorder, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired attention, treated most frequently with methylphenidate (MPH). For children and adults with ADHD who do not respond satisfactorily or do not… read more
Differential Nicotinic Modulation of Glutamatergic and GABAergic VTA Microcircuits
Yijin Yan, Nicole A. Beckley, Veronica J. Kim, Ryan M. Drenan
eNeuro, , 6(6) (2019)
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons receive glutamatergic and/or GABAergic input from other local neurons within the VTA. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity is capable of modulating such intra-VTA transmission, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we isolated monosynaptic glutamate… read more
A preclinical model of tobacco dependence
Candice A. Gellner, Daisy D. Reynaga, Frances M. Leslie
Current Protocols in Neuroscience, 9.54.1, 77 (2016)
Abstract Animal models are used to study many human diseases, one of which is tobacco addiction. Most preclinical models use nicotine alone, although there are >7000 constituents present in tobacco smoke. The clinical literature suggests that cigarettes have a strong addictive potential, which is n… read more
Anti-inflammatory agents for smoking cessation? Focus on cognitive deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in male mice
Rocio Saravia, Marc Ten-Blanco, María T. Grande, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Pages 228-239, 75 (2019)
Nicotine withdrawal is associated with cognitive deficits including attention, working memory, and episodic memory impairments. These cognitive deficits are a hallmark of nicotine abstinence which could be targeted in order to prevent smoking relapse. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly … read more
Nicotine increases behavioral variability on radial arm maze extinction. A preliminary study
Jessica A. Suarez, José L. Solano, Karen P. Barrios, Leonardo A. Ortega
Learning and Motivation, 101721, 74 (2021)
Behavioral variability (BV) is proposed as a general adaptation process to environmental changes related to adjustments for the search of reinforcement sources. During extinction procedures, BV is reflected by increases of the number, topography, or sequences of behaviors. Inhibitory drugs have bee… read more
Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories
Marco Cambiaghi, Anna Grosso, Annamaria Renna, Giulia Concina, Benedetto Sacchetti
Neuropharmacology, Pages 577-588, 99 (2015)
Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in t… read more
Effects of vitamin E on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation in rat granulosa cells: Folliculogenesis
Zehra Sezer, Tugba Ekiz Yilmaz, Zeynep Banu Gungor, Fatma Kalay, Elif Guzel
Reproductive Biology, Pages 63-74, 20(1) (2020)
In this study, we investigated the mechanism of oxidative damage induced by nicotine and the efficacy of vitamin E, an integral component of cellular membranes, against the damage in follicular/granulosa cells of rat ovaries. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups; control, nicotine, nicot… read more
Nanonaringenin and Vitamin E Ameliorate Some Behavioral, Biochemical, and Brain Tissue Alterations Induced by Nicotine in Rats
Mohamed A. Kandeil , Eman T. Mohammed , Rania A. Radi , Fatma Khalil, Abdel-Razik H. Abdel-Razik , Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim and Ghada M. Safwa
Journal of Toxicology, 4411316, 2021 (2021)
Nicotine is the major alkaloid present in cigarettes that induces various biochemical and behavioral changes. Nanonaringenin (NNG) and vitamin E are antioxidants that are reported to mitigate serious impairments caused by some toxins and oxidants. Thus, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of NNG, … read more
Sex- and Genotype-Dependent Nicotine-Induced Behaviors in Adolescent Rats with a Human Polymorphism (rs2304297) in the 30 -UTR of the CHRNA6 Gene
Anjelica Cardenas, Yu Bai 2, Yasamin Hajy Heydary, Jiaqi Li, Frances M. Leslie and Shahrdad Lotfipour
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 3145, 23(6) (2022)
In human adolescents, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2304297, in the 3′-UTR of the nicotinic receptor subunit gene, CHRNA6, has been associated with increased smoking. To study the effects of the human CHRNA6 3′-UTR SNP, our lab generated knock-in rodent lines with either C or G SNP alle… read more