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GL9693 (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt

Synonyms: (−)-1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine (+)-bitartrate salt; Nicotine bitartrate dihydrate; Nicotine ditartrate dihydrate; Nicotine powder; Nicotine tartrate
Structure for (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (65-31-6)
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Large structure for (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (65-31-6)

Structure for (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (65-31-6)

CAS: 65-31-6

MF: C10H14N2 · 2C4H6O6 (anhydrous)

MW: 462.41 (anhydrous)

Assay (HPLC): 98.5 - 101.5 % (anhydrous basis)

Availability: In stock

GL9693 (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt

Synonyms: (−)-1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine (+)-bitartrate salt; Nicotine bitartrate dihydrate; Nicotine ditartrate dihydrate; Nicotine powder; Nicotine tartrate

CAS: 65-31-6 MF: C10H14N2 · 2C4H6O6 (anhydrous) MW: 462.41 (anhydrous)

Assay (HPLC): 98.5 - 101.5 % (anhydrous basis)    |    Availability:  In stock    |    SDS    |    Specification
No. Units
Price (USD)
26th March 2023
26th March 2023
Nicotine is a naturally derived alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants. It is a toxic, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt is more stable during storage than the base form.
Note: Please contact us if you require ISO 13276 purity testing for this material
Glentham Code
Product Categories
Alternative CAS RNs
6019-06-3 (·2H2O), 2624-48-8, 54-11-5 (base)
EC Number
MDL Number
Storage Temperature
Shipping Temperature
Harmonised Tariff Code
Physical Description
White to almost white powder
10% in water: Soluble
1% in 96% ethanol: Slightly soluble
pH (10% in water)
3.0 - 3.4
Specific Optical Rotation
+21.0 - +23.0 ° (1% in water)
Related Substances (HPLC)
Any Specified Impurity: ≤ 0.3%
(Continine, Myosmine, Nicotine-N-oxide, beta-Nicotyrine, Anatabine, Anabasine, Nornicotine)
Unspecified Impurity: ≤ 0.1%
Total Impurities: ≤ 0.8%
6.9 - 8.0 %
Sulphated Ash
≤ 0.1%
Assay (HPLC)
98.5 - 101.5 % (anhydrous basis)
Residual Solvents
Ethanol: ≤ 5000ppm, Methanol: ≤ 3000ppm
Pharmacopoeia Specification(s)
Specification Version
SDS pictograms SDS pictograms
Signal word
Hazard statements
H300: Fatal if swallowed.
H310: Fatal in contact with skin.
H330: Fatal if inhaled.
H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.
Precautionary statements
P260: Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P273: Avoid release to the environment.
P280: Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284: Wear respiratory protection.
P301 + P310: IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P302 + P352: IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water.
P304 + P340: IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P310: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
UN Number
UN1659 - 6.1 - PG II
If you are publishing research using GL9693 please contact us to contribute to our list of citations.
Nicotine Self-Administration Induces Plastic Changes to Nicotinic Receptors in Medial Habenula
Xiao-Tao Jin, Brenton R. Tucker, Ryan M. Drenan
eNeuro, 0197, 7(4) (2020)

Chronic nicotine upregulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and reducing their activity may promote somatic and affective states that lead to nicotine seeking. nAChRs are functionally upregulated in animal models using passive nicotine administration, but whether/h… read more

Atomoxetine Reestablishes Long Term Potentiation in a Mouse Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Ricardo Pina, Carlos Rozas, Darwin Contreras, Paulina Hardy, Gonzalo Ugarte, Marc L. Zeise, Patricio Rojas, Bernardo Morales
Neuroscience, 268-274, 439 (2020)

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric childhood disorder, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired attention, treated most frequently with methylphenidate (MPH). For children and adults with ADHD who do not respond satisfactorily or do not… read more

Differential Nicotinic Modulation of Glutamatergic and GABAergic VTA Microcircuits
Yijin Yan, Nicole A. Beckley, Veronica J. Kim, Ryan M. Drenan
eNeuro, , 6(6) (2019)

Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons receive glutamatergic and/or GABAergic input from other local neurons within the VTA. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity is capable of modulating such intra-VTA transmission, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we isolated monosynaptic glutamate… read more

A Standardized Approach to Quantitative Analysis of Nicotine in e-Liquids Based on Peak Purity Criteria Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Vinit V. Gholap, Leon Kosmider, Matthew S. Halquist
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 1720375, 2018 (2018)

The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a growing trend in population. E-cigarettes are evolving at a rapid rate with variety of battery powered devices and combustible nicotine refills such as e-liquids. In contrast to conventional cigarettes which are studied well for their toxicity an… read more

A preclinical model of tobacco dependence
Candice A. Gellner, Daisy D. Reynaga, Frances M. Leslie
Current Protocols in Neuroscience, 9.54.1, 77 (2016)

Abstract Animal models are used to study many human diseases, one of which is tobacco addiction. Most preclinical models use nicotine alone, although there are >7000 constituents present in tobacco smoke. The clinical literature suggests that cigarettes have a strong addictive potential, which is n… read more

Altered nicotine reward-associated behavior following α4 nAChR subunit deletion in ventral midbrain
Peng C, Engle SE, Yan Y, Weera MM, Berry JN, Arvin MC, et al.
PLOS ONE, e0182142, 12(7) (2017)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) are critical for nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the addictive action of nicotine. To identify specific activities of these receptors in the adult mouse brain, we coupled targeted deletion of α4 nAChR subunits with behav… read more

Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Effects of Vitamin C on Bone Healing in Rats Exposed to Nicotine
Eda Kaya Akça, Berkem Atalay, Bilgin Oner
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pages 194.e1-194.e14, 78(2) (2020)

The aim of the present study was to perform a histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigation of the effects of vitamin C on bone healing in rats exposed to nicotine. A total of 52 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 main groups: control, vitamin C, nicotine, and nicotine plus vitamin… read more

Effects of ethanol, nicotine and caffeine gestational exposure of female rats on lung and brain tissues in fetuses: morphological and biological study
Daniela Pintican, Ştefan Strilciuc, Sebastian Mihai Armean, Dan Mihu
Romanian journal of morphology and embryology, Pages 643–651, 60(2) (2019)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of toxic exposure on pregnancy, by exploring the oxidant-antioxidant balance and the histopathological (HP) changes of fetal organs. Our study was performed on fetuses of gestating rats exposed to ethanol, nicotine and caffeine. HP tissue a… read more

Systemic nicotine enhances opioid self-administration and modulates the formation of opioid-associated memories partly through actions within the insular cortex
Gregory C Loney, Christopher P King, Paul J Meyer
Scientific Reports, 3321, 11 (2021)

Habitual use of nicotine containing products increases propensity to misuse prescription opioids and its prevalence is substantially increased in individuals currently involved in opioid-treatment programs. Nicotine enhances self-administration of many classes of drugs in rodents, though evidence f… read more

Effects of nicotine exposure and anxiety on motivation for reward and gambling-like cues under reward uncertainty
Russell, T. I. and Robinson, M. J. F.
Behavioral Neuroscience, Pages 361-377, 133(4) (2019)

Reward uncertainty is a common characteristic of gambling and may powerfully enhance attraction to gambling-related cues, thus promoting maladaptive gambling behaviors in susceptible individuals. The co-occurrence of gambling disorder with tobacco use disorder (60.4%) suggests a common mechanism fo… read more

Anti-inflammatory agents for smoking cessation? Focus on cognitive deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in male mice
Rocio Saravia, Marc Ten-Blanco, María T. Grande, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Pages 228-239, 75 (2019)

Nicotine withdrawal is associated with cognitive deficits including attention, working memory, and episodic memory impairments. These cognitive deficits are a hallmark of nicotine abstinence which could be targeted in order to prevent smoking relapse. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorly … read more

Nicotine increases behavioral variability on radial arm maze extinction. A preliminary study
Jessica A. Suarez, José L. Solano, Karen P. Barrios, Leonardo A. Ortega
Learning and Motivation, 101721, 74 (2021)

Behavioral variability (BV) is proposed as a general adaptation process to environmental changes related to adjustments for the search of reinforcement sources. During extinction procedures, BV is reflected by increases of the number, topography, or sequences of behaviors. Inhibitory drugs have bee… read more

Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories
Marco Cambiaghi, Anna Grosso, Annamaria Renna, Giulia Concina, Benedetto Sacchetti
Neuropharmacology, Pages 577-588, 99 (2015)

Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in t… read more

Nicotine pre-treatment reduces sensitivity to the interoceptive stimulus effects of commonly abused drugs as assessed with taste conditioning paradigms
G.C. Loney, P.J. Meyer
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Pages 341-350, 194 (2019)

Drug pre-exposure attenuates sensitivity to the interoceptive stimulus properties of additional subsequently administered drugs in drug-induced conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. Specifically, nicotine, commonly used in conjunction with other addicti… read more

Effects of vitamin E on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation in rat granulosa cells: Folliculogenesis
Zehra Sezer, Tugba Ekiz Yilmaz, Zeynep Banu Gungor, Fatma Kalay, Elif Guzel
Reproductive Biology, Pages 63-74, 20(1) (2020)

In this study, we investigated the mechanism of oxidative damage induced by nicotine and the efficacy of vitamin E, an integral component of cellular membranes, against the damage in follicular/granulosa cells of rat ovaries. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups; control, nicotine, nicot… read more

α6-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in midbrain dopamine neurons are poised to govern dopamine-mediated behaviors and synaptic plasticity
J.N. Berry, S.E. Engle, J.M. McIntosh, R.M. Drenan
Neuroscience, Pages 161-175, 604 (2015)

Acetylcholine (ACh) acts through nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors in the ventral midbrain and striatal areas to influence dopamine (DA) transmission. This cholinergic control of DA transmission is important for processes such as attention and motivated behavior, and is manipulated by nicotine… read more

Nanonaringenin and Vitamin E Ameliorate Some Behavioral, Biochemical, and Brain Tissue Alterations Induced by Nicotine in Rats
Mohamed A. Kandeil , Eman T. Mohammed , Rania A. Radi , Fatma Khalil, Abdel-Razik H. Abdel-Razik , Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim and Ghada M. Safwa
Journal of Toxicology, 4411316, 2021 (2021)

Nicotine is the major alkaloid present in cigarettes that induces various biochemical and behavioral changes. Nanonaringenin (NNG) and vitamin E are antioxidants that are reported to mitigate serious impairments caused by some toxins and oxidants. Thus, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of NNG, … read more

Functional α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in GABAergic neurons of the interpeduncular nucleus
Xiao-Tao Jin, Ryan M. Drenan
Neuropharmacology, 108987, 208 (2022)

The interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) plays a key role in nicotine dependence and is involved in regulation of fear responses, affective states, and novelty processing. IPN neurons express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and receive strong cholinergic innervation from the ventral medial haben… read more

Sex- and Genotype-Dependent Nicotine-Induced Behaviors in Adolescent Rats with a Human Polymorphism (rs2304297) in the 30 -UTR of the CHRNA6 Gene
Anjelica Cardenas, Yu Bai 2, Yasamin Hajy Heydary, Jiaqi Li, Frances M. Leslie and Shahrdad Lotfipour
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 3145, 23(6) (2022)

In human adolescents, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2304297, in the 3′-UTR of the nicotinic receptor subunit gene, CHRNA6, has been associated with increased smoking. To study the effects of the human CHRNA6 3′-UTR SNP, our lab generated knock-in rodent lines with either C or G SNP alle… read more

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Structure for (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (65-31-6)


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Packaging Description For GL9693-1G

Description: 5ml amber glass vial with 18mm neck + blue cap with PTFE wad

Material: Amber glass

Dimensions: 22 x 22 x 48 (mm)

Nominal volume: 5 (ml)

UN certified: No

Weight: 20.182 g

If you would like any further details, please call us on +44 (0) 1225 667798 or send us an e-mail.

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Packaging Description For GL9693-5G

Description: 15ml amber glass bottle with 28mm neck + 28mm blue cap with PTFE wad

Material: Amber glass

Dimensions: 32 x 32 x 53 (mm)

Nominal volume: 15 (ml)

UN certified: No

Weight: 44.085 g

If you would like any further details, please call us on +44 (0) 1225 667798 or send us an e-mail.

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Stock Level Information

Our stock availability is calculated based on the quantity that we have in stock.

If a number of stock units is given in orange, we have enough material in smaller packs or in bulk to re-pack into these larger units.

This would not affect the dispatch date displayed.

For any questions or to check our stock, please call us on +44 (0) 1225 667798 or send us an e-mail.

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