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GL9693 (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt

Synonyms: (−)-1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine (+)-bitartrate salt; Nicotine bitartrate dihydrate; Nicotine ditartrate dihydrate; Nicotine powder; Nicotine tartrate
Structure for (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (65-31-6)
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Large structure for (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (65-31-6)

Structure for (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt (65-31-6)

CAS: 65-31-6

MF: C10H14N2 · 2C4H6O6 (anhydrous)

MW: 462.41 (anhydrous)

Assay (HPLC): 98.5 - 101.5 % (anhydrous basis)

Availability: In stock

GL9693 (-)-Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt

Synonyms: (−)-1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine (+)-bitartrate salt; Nicotine bitartrate dihydrate; Nicotine ditartrate dihydrate; Nicotine powder; Nicotine tartrate

CAS: 65-31-6 MF: C10H14N2 · 2C4H6O6 (anhydrous) MW: 462.41 (anhydrous)

Assay (HPLC): 98.5 - 101.5 % (anhydrous basis)    |    Availability:  In stock    |    SDS    |    Specification
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Price (USD)
Nicotine is a naturally derived alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants. It is a toxic, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate salt is more stable during storage than the base form.
Note: Tested according to ISO 13276
Glentham Code
Product Categories
Alternative CAS RNs
6019-06-3 (·2H2O), 2624-48-8, 54-11-5 (base)
EC Number
MDL Number
PubChem Substance ID
Storage Temperature
Shipping Temperature
Harmonised Tariff Code
Physical Description
White to almost white powder
10% in water: Soluble
1% in 96% ethanol: Slightly soluble
pH (10% in water)
3.0 - 3.4
Specific Optical Rotation
+21.0 - +23.0 ° (1% in water)
Related Substances (HPLC)
Any Specified Impurity: ≤ 0.3%
(Continine, Myosmine, Nicotine-N-oxide, beta-Nicotyrine, Anatabine, Anabasine, Nornicotine)
Unspecified Impurity: ≤ 0.1%
Total Impurities: ≤ 0.8%
6.9 - 8.0 %
Sulphated Ash
≤ 0.1%
Assay (HPLC)
98.5 - 101.5 % (anhydrous basis)
Residual Solvents
Ethanol: ≤ 5000ppm, Methanol: ≤ 3000ppm
Pharmacopoeia Specification(s)
Specification Version
MSDS pictograms MSDS pictograms
Signal word
Hazard statements
H300: Fatal if swallowed.
H310: Fatal in contact with skin.
H330: Fatal if inhaled.
H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.
Precautionary statements
P260: Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P273: Avoid release to the environment.
P280: Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284: Wear respiratory protection.
P301 + P310: IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P302 + P352: IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water.
P304 + P340: IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P310: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
UN Number
UN1659 - 6.1 - PG II
If you are publishing research using GL9693 please contact us to contribute to our list of citations.
Nicotine Self-Administration Induces Plastic Changes to Nicotinic Receptors in Medial Habenula
Xiao-Tao Jin, Brenton R. Tucker, Ryan M. Drenan
eNeuro, 0197, 7(4) (2020)

Chronic nicotine upregulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and reducing their activity may promote somatic and affective states that lead to nicotine seeking. nAChRs are functionally upregulated in animal models using passive nicotine administration, but whether... read more

Atomoxetine Reestablishes Long Term Potentiation in a Mouse Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Ricardo Pina, Carlos Rozas, Darwin Contreras, Paulina Hardy, Gonzalo Ugarte, Marc L. Zeise, Patricio Rojas, Bernardo Morales
Neuroscience, Pages 268-274, 439 (2020)

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric childhood disorder, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired attention, treated most frequently with methylphenidate (MPH). For children and adults with ADHD who do not respond satisfactorily or do n... read more

Differential Nicotinic Modulation of Glutamatergic and GABAergic VTA Microcircuits
Yijin Yan, Nicole A. Beckley, Veronica J. Kim, Ryan M. Drenan
eNeuro, , 6(6) (2019)

Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons receive glutamatergic and/or GABAergic input from other local neurons within the VTA. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity is capable of modulating such intra-VTA transmission, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we isolated monosynaptic glutama... read more

A Standardized Approach to Quantitative Analysis of Nicotine in e-Liquids Based on Peak Purity Criteria Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Vinit V. Gholap, Leon Kosmider, Matthew S. Halquist
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 1720375, 2018 (2018)

The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a growing trend in population. E-cigarettes are evolving at a rapid rate with variety of battery powered devices and combustible nicotine refills such as e-liquids. In contrast to conventional cigarettes which are studied well for their toxicity ... read more

A preclinical model of tobacco dependence
Candice A. Gellner, Daisy D. Reynaga, Frances M. Leslie
Current Protocols in Neuroscience, 9.54.1, 77 (2016)

Abstract Animal models are used to study many human diseases, one of which is tobacco addiction. Most preclinical models use nicotine alone, although there are >7000 constituents present in tobacco smoke. The clinical literature suggests that cigarettes have a strong addictive potential, which is... read more

Altered nicotine reward-associated behavior following α4 nAChR subunit deletion in ventral midbrain
Peng C, Engle SE, Yan Y, Weera MM, Berry JN, Arvin MC, et al.
PLOS ONE, e0182142, 12(7) (2017)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) are critical for nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the addictive action of nicotine. To identify specific activities of these receptors in the adult mouse brain, we coupled targeted deletion of α4 nAChR subunits with beh... read more

Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Effects of Vitamin C on Bone Healing in Rats Exposed to Nicotine
Eda Kaya Akça, Berkem Atalay, Bilgin Oner
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pages 194.e1-194.e14, 78(2) (2020)

The aim of the present study was to perform a histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigation of the effects of vitamin C on bone healing in rats exposed to nicotine. A total of 52 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 main groups: control, vitamin C, nicotine, and nicotine plus vitam... read more

Effects of ethanol, nicotine and caffeine gestational exposure of female rats on lung and brain tissues in fetuses: morphological and biological study
Daniela Pintican, Ştefan Strilciuc, Sebastian Mihai Armean, Dan Mihu
Romanian journal of morphology and embryology, Pages 643–651, 60(2) (2019)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of toxic exposure on pregnancy, by exploring the oxidant-antioxidant balance and the histopathological (HP) changes of fetal organs. Our study was performed on fetuses of gestating rats exposed to ethanol, nicotine and caffeine. HP tissue... read more

Systemic nicotine enhances opioid self-administration and modulates the formation of opioid-associated memories partly through actions within the insular cortex
Gregory C Loney, Christopher P King, Paul J Meyer
Scientific Reports, 3321, 11 (2021)

Habitual use of nicotine containing products increases propensity to misuse prescription opioids and its prevalence is substantially increased in individuals currently involved in opioid-treatment programs. Nicotine enhances self-administration of many classes of drugs in rodents, though evidence... read more

Effects of nicotine exposure and anxiety on motivation for reward and gambling-like cues under reward uncertainty.
Russell, T. I. and Robinson, M. J. F.
Behavioral Neuroscience, Pages 361-377, 133(4) (2019)

Reward uncertainty is a common characteristic of gambling and may powerfully enhance attraction to gambling-related cues, thus promoting maladaptive gambling behaviors in susceptible individuals. The co-occurrence of gambling disorder with tobacco use disorder (60.4%) suggests a common mechanism ... read more

Anti-inflammatory agents for smoking cessation? Focus on cognitive deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in male mice
Rocio Saravia, Marc Ten-Blanco, María T. Grande, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Pages 228-239, 75 (2019)

Nicotine withdrawal is associated with cognitive deficits including attention, working memory, and episodic memory impairments. These cognitive deficits are a hallmark of nicotine abstinence which could be targeted in order to prevent smoking relapse. The underlying mechanisms, however, are poorl... read more

Nicotine increases behavioral variability on radial arm maze extinction. A preliminary study
Jessica A. Suarez, José L. Solano, Karen P. Barrios, Leonardo A. Ortega
Learning and Motivation, 101721, 74 (2021)

Behavioral variability (BV) is proposed as a general adaptation process to environmental changes related to adjustments for the search of reinforcement sources. During extinction procedures, BV is reflected by increases of the number, topography, or sequences of behaviors. Inhibitory drugs have b... read more

Acute administration of nicotine into the higher order auditory Te2 cortex specifically decreases the fear-related charge of remote emotional memories
Marco Cambiaghi, Anna Grosso, Annamaria Renna, Giulia Concina, Benedetto Sacchetti
Neuropharmacology, Pages 577-588, 99 (2015)

Nicotine elicits several behavioural effects on mood as well as on stress and anxiety processes. Recently, it was found that the higher order components of the sensory cortex, such as the secondary auditory cortex Te2, are essential for the long-term storage of remote fear memories. Therefore, in... read more

Nicotine pre-treatment reduces sensitivity to the interoceptive stimulus effects of commonly abused drugs as assessed with taste conditioning paradigms
G.C. Loney, P.J. Meyer
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Pages 341-350, 194 (2019)

Drug pre-exposure attenuates sensitivity to the interoceptive stimulus properties of additional subsequently administered drugs in drug-induced conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. Specifically, nicotine, commonly used in conjunction with other addic... read more

Effects of vitamin E on nicotine-induced lipid peroxidation in rat granulosa cells: Folliculogenesis
Zehra Sezer, Tugba Ekiz Yilmaz, Zeynep Banu Gungor, Fatma Kalay, Elif Guzel
Reproductive Biology, Pages 63-74, 20(1) (2020)

In this study, we investigated the mechanism of oxidative damage induced by nicotine and the efficacy of vitamin E, an integral component of cellular membranes, against the damage in follicular/granulosa cells of rat ovaries. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups; control, nicotine, nic... read more

α6-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in midbrain dopamine neurons are poised to govern dopamine-mediated behaviors and synaptic plasticity
J.N. Berry, S.E. Engle, J.M. McIntosh, R.M. Drenan
Neuroscience, Pages 161-175, 604 (2015)

Acetylcholine (ACh) acts through nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors in the ventral midbrain and striatal areas to influence dopamine (DA) transmission. This cholinergic control of DA transmission is important for processes such as attention and motivated behavior, and is manipulated by nicoti... read more

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