According to EP
Solubility (10% in water)
Clear, colourless solution
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
97.0 - 100.5 %
H290: May be corrosive to metals.
H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.
P260: Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280: Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P301 + P330 + P331: IF SWALLOWED: rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
P303 + P361 + P353: IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower.
P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P310: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
UN1823 - 8 - PG II
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Sustainable recovery of critical elements from seawater saltworks bitterns by integration of high selective sorbents and reactive precipitation and crystallisation: Developing the probe of concept with on-site produced chemicals and energy
V. Vallès, M. Fernández de Labastida, J. López, G. Battaglia, D. Winter, S. Randazzo, A. Cipollina, J.L. Cortina
Separation and Purification Technology, 122622, 306, part B (2023)
The availability of raw mineral resources containing elements included in the Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) list is a growing concern for the European Union. Sea mining has been identified as a promising secondary source. In particular, brines obtained in solar saltworks (bitterns) contain relevant… read more